Research started in 1974 and has been a thread throughout my career.  Early laboratory experiences using immunofluorescent antibody assays  (IFAT) to investigate leptospirosis in horses and CAMP upregulation in Chinese hamster ovary cells were tools that translated well to the study of Sarcocystosis in horses because projects relied heavily on tissue culture techniques.  Viral disease projects included isolating herpes from chemotherapy patients and developing diagnostics for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in acute disease, and later, investigating Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome, PRRS,  (also known as blue-ear pig disease).


Growing species of Leptospira in culture led to identification of immune mediated pathology in equine iris tissues.

Forcing Sarcocystis to exit cells they infected using ionophores was necessary to show Sarcocystis neurona doesn’t have a synchronous infection cycle.

Isolation of Sarcocystis neurona in neural tissues from horses and tissue culture of sporocysts from feces of dogs and opossums were instrumental in developing diagnostics and disease models.

Molecular identification and characterization of surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona by 2-D electrophoresis led to cloning and expression of important antigens.

Molecular tools were used to determine that the SAG 6 gene is present and expressed by S. neurona and S. falcatula organisms.

Isolation of Streptococcus suis from sick pigs led to an endogenous vaccine and attempts to produce a monoclonal antibody against S. suis.

Several tissue culture cells were used to maximize infection by the PRRS virus useful in vaccine development.

DIAGNOSIS 1999-current

Developing ELISA’s to detect antibody and more specifically to serotype strains of infecting Sarcocystis in horses is useful to develop treatment protocols.

Antimyelin protein antibodies (MP2/MPP) are key indicators of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies that can be a result of Sarcocystis infection or other infective processes.

Neurofilament light are released with axon damage. They can be present in demyelinating and non-demyelinating polyneuropathies.

Sarcocystis fayeri in horses can be detected by a toxin associated with the muscle cyst found in horses.  This tool is important for differentiating neuromuscular diseases in horses.

You can find more information about what we do at

Total Page Visits: 399 - Today Page Visits: 1